Identification of Prophages within the Mycobacterium avium 104 Genome and the Link of Their Function Regarding to Environment Survival

Miao Zhao, Kerrigan Gilbert, Lia Danelishvili, Brendan Jeffrey, Luiz E. Bermudez
2016 Advances in microbiology  
Mycobacterium avium is an opportunistic bacterium associated with pathogenic behavior in both humans and animals. M. avium has evolved as a pathogen by having an environmental component in its life style. Prophages are the integrated viral forms in bacterium genome. They constitute about 10% -20% of genome of many bacteria and they contribute to pathogenicity of microbes. We investigated whether the M. avium 104 genome contained prophages and evaluated the genes/proteins for putative functions.
more » ... Three prophage genes were identified in the M. avium 104 database, and sequences were analyzed for specific motifs. The prophage sequences were then cloned in Mycobacterium smegmatis and the bacterial phenotype was evaluated in gain of function assays for environmental stresses, such as tolerance to extreme temperatures, UV light, biofilm formation and resistance to acid as well as macrophage survival. The results indicate that two of the prophage genes, MAV_0696 and MAV_2265, confer M. smegmatis with enhanced ability to produce biofilm. Using a Real-Time PCR, it was determined that MAV_0696 and MAV_2265 transcripts were upregulated upon biofilm formation by M. avium. The expression of MAV_2265 gene was significantly higher at all selected time points. In addition, the expression of MAV_2265 in M. smegmatis also led to significantly greater survival rate at pH 5.0 compared to the wild-type control. None of the other physical abilities were altered by overexpressing the prophage genes in M. smegmatis. In summary, we identified three prophage sequences in M. avium 104, from which two of them were found to be associated with biofilm formation and one with resistance to the acidic environment. Future studies will identify the mechanisms involved in the prophages function. How to cite this paper: Zhao, M., Gilbert, K., Danelishvili, L., Jeffrey, B. and Bermudez, L.E. (2016) Identification of Prophages within the Mycobacterium avium 104 Genome and the Link of Their Function Regarding to Environment Survival. Advances in Microbiology, 6, 927-941. http://dx.
doi:10.4236/aim.2016.613087 fatcat:wm5kyy4e65f3lab3bbwqoe4eka