Considerations in Harmful Algal Bloom Research and Monitoring: Perspectives From a Consensus-Building Workshop and Technology Testing
Frontiers in Marine Science
Recurrent blooms of harmful algae and cyanobacteria (HABs) plague many coastal and inland waters throughout the United States and have significant socioeconomic impacts to the adjacent communities. Notable HAB events in recent years continue to underscore the many remaining gaps in knowledge and increased needs for technological advances leading to early detection. This review summarizes the main research and management priorities that can be addressed through ocean observationbased approaches
... nd technological solutions for harmful algal blooms, provides an update to the state of the technology to detect HAB events based on recent activities of the Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT), offers considerations for ensuring data quality, and highlights both ongoing challenges and opportunities for solutions in integrating HAB-focused technologies in research and management. Specifically, technological advances are discussed for remote sensing (both multispectral satellite and hyperspectral); deployable in situ detection of HAB species on fixed or mobile platforms (based on bulk or taxa-specific biomass, images, or molecular approaches); and field-based and/or rapid quantitative detection of HAB toxins (via molecular and analytical chemistry methods). Suggestions for addressing challenges to continued development and adoption of new technologies are summarized, based on a consensus-building workshop hosted by ACT, including dealing with the uncertainties in investment for HAB research, monitoring, and management. Challenges associated with choosing appropriate technologies for a given ecosystem and/or management concern are also addressed, and examples of programs that are leveraging and combining complementary approaches are highlighted.