Characteristics of patent foramen ovale associated with cryptogenic stroke. A biplane transesophageal echocardiographic study

S Homma, M R Di Tullio, R L Sacco, D Mihalatos, G Li Mandri, J P Mohr
1994 Stroke  
and Purpose Patent foramen ovale is associated with ischemic stroke in patients without a clearly identifiable etiology for stroke (cryptogenic stroke). Paradoxical embolization is thought to be a potential mechanism. However, patent foramen ovale is also found in patients with known cause of stroke. Therefore, using contrast transesophageal echocardiography, we characterized the patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic stroke patients to assess morphological factors that may contribute to
more » ... ribute to paradoxical embolization. Methods Contrast transesophageal echocardiographic studies of 74 consecutive patients referred for ischemic stroke were reviewed. Twenty-three patients with patent foramen ovale were identified. These patients were classified as having strokes of determined origin or cryptogenic strokes according to criteria developed for the Stroke Data Bank of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Separation of septum primum from secundum and the number of microbubbles appearing in left atrium were then quantitated. These
doi:10.1161/01.str.25.3.582 pmid:8128511 fatcat:ip76eixxynfb7farzx2higd2bu