Zero time tunneling: macroscopic experiments with virtual particles

Günter Nimtz, Horst Aichmann, L. Bravina, Y. Foka, S. Kabana
2015 EPJ Web of Conferences  
Feynman introduced virtual particles in his diagrams as intermediate states of an interaction process. They represent necessary intermediate states between observable real states. Such virtual particles were introduced to describe the interaction process between an electron and a positron and for much more complicated interaction processes. Other candidates for virtual particles are evanescent modes in optics and in elastic fields. Evanescent modes have a purely imaginary wave number, they
more » ... e number, they represent the mathematical analogy of the tunneling solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Evanescent modes exist in the forbidden frequency bands of a photonic lattice and in undersized wave guides, for instance. The most prominent example for the occurrence of evanescent modes is the frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) at double prisms. Evanescent modes and tunneling lie outside the bounds of the special theory of relativity. They can cause faster than light (FTL) signal velocities. We present examples of the quantum mechanical behavior of evanescent photons and phonons at a macroscopic scale. The evanescent modes of photons are described by virtual particles as predicted by former QED calculations. 7KLV LV DQ 2SHQ $FFHVV DUWLFOH GLVWULEXWHG XQGHU WKH WHUPV RI WKH &UHDWLYH &RPPRQV $WWULEXWLRQ /LFHQVH ZKLFK SHUPLWV XQUHVWULFWHG XVH GLVWULEXWLRQ DQG UHSURGXFWLRQ LQ DQ\ PHGLXP SURYLGHG WKH RULJLQDO ZRUN LV SURSHUO\ FLWHG 4 4 Article available at
doi:10.1051/epjconf/20159504044 fatcat:kshyi2ulgfdnbibsl2drulpgzu