A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011

J.-P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, J. Kukkonen
2016 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
<p><strong>Abstract.</strong> Emissions originating from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM), which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states.
more » ... total ship emissions of CO<sub>2</sub>, NO<sub><i>x</i></sub>, SO<sub><i>x</i></sub>, CO, and PM<sub>2.5</sub> in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 121, 3.0, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO<sub>2</sub> from the Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (55<span class="thinspace"></span>%) of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (88<span class="thinspace"></span>%) as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SO<sub><i>x</i></sub> were significantly lower in the SO<sub><i>x</i></sub> Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 40 and 49<span class="thinspace"></span>% of the European ship emitted CO<sub>2</sub> and SO<sub><i>x</i></sub> emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NO<sub><i>x</i></sub>, SO<sub><i>x</i></sub>, and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM<sub>2.5</sub> emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55<span class="thinspace"></span>% of the total CO<sub>2</sub> emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25<span class="thinspace"></span>% of the total CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.</p>
doi:10.5194/acp-16-71-2016 fatcat:54lwx56635dxxbd7ozkeehakhq