Nitric oxide induced alleviation of toxic effects of short term and long term Cd stress on growth, oxidative metabolism and Cd accumulation in Chickpea
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
The present study investigates the effect of long and short term Cd stress in chickpea plants and evaluates the protective effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) supplementation using sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Cadmium treatments were given before sowing (long term stress) and thirty days after germination (short term stress). Sodium nitroprusside was given as foliar spray 30 days after germination to both long and short term Cd treated plants. Cadmium adversely affected the membranes as was
... dent from increased electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation levels. Sodium nitroprusside treatments decreased ion leakage and lipid peroxidation levels significantly. Short term Cd stress resulted in a higher induction of the catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase as compared to long term Cd stress. Nitric oxide showed its positive effect by further increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Cadmium stress also altered the level of antioxidant metabolites by reducing the ascorbate redox ratio (ASC/DHA) and glutathione redox ratio (GSH/GSSG). Sodium nitroprusside treatments increased the redox ratios. Cadmium also adversely affected the seed yield and a greater decline was observed with long term Cd stress as compared to short term Cd stress. Nitric oxide had a positive effect on seed yield and Cd accumulation. The study concludes that an exogenous supply of NO protects chickpea plants from Cd toxicity.