Coagulation, inflammation and myocardial dysfunction in unstable coronary artery disease and the influence of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition and low molecular weight heparin
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
James, S. 2003. Coagulation, inflammation and myocardial dysfunction in unstable coronary artery disease and the influence of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition and low molecular weight heparin. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.Comprehensive Summary of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine 1241. 63 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 91-554-5580-8 Patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) have an increased risk of subsequent myocardial infarction and death. This study evaluated the safety and
... efficacy of treatment with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in addition to aspirin, low molecular-weight heparin and its influence on coagulation and inflammation. Also, early and differentiated risk assessment utilising markers of inflammation, myocardial damage and dysfunction were evaluated. The Global Utilisation of Strategies To open Occluded arteries-IV (GUSTO-IV) trial randomised 7800 patients with unstable CAD to 24 or 48 hours infusion of abciximab or placebo in addition to routine treatment with aspirin and unfactionated heparin or dalteparin. Baseline levels of creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), Troponin-T (TnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were analysed. At selected sites, all patients received subcutaneous dalteparin (n=974), in stead of unfractionated heparin infusion (n=6826). In a sub-population of dalteparin treated patients (n=404), serial measurements of markers of inflammation , coagulation and fibrinolysis were also performed. Addition of abciximab to dalteparin as the primary treatment of unstable CAD was not associated with any significant reduction in cardiac events but a doubled risk of bleedings. The combination of abciximab and dalteparin seemed to be as safe as when used with unfractionated heparin. Despite full dose dalteparin and aspirin there was a simultaneous activation of the inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis systems without any influence of the abciximab treatment. Elevated levels of CRP, TnT, and NT-proBNP and reduced creatinine clearance were independently related to short and long-term mortality. The best prediction of high and low risk was provided by a combination of NT-proBNP and creatinine clearance. Any detectable elevation of TnT and reduced creatinine clearance, but neither elevation of CRP nor NT-proBNP, were also independently associated to a raised risk of subsequent myocardial infarction.