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The twisted plywood, or Bouligand, structure is the most commonly observed microstructural motif in natural materials that possess high mechanical strength and toughness, such as that found in bone and the mantis shrimp dactyl club. These materials are isotropically toughened by a low volume fraction of soft, energy-dissipating polymer and by the Bouligand structure itself, through shear wave filtering and crack twisting, deflection and arrest. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are excellentdoi:10.1098/rsta.2017.0050 pmid:29277746 fatcat:qlddqnrngfhspfs34wxxvbl7fq