Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors in solid tumors: From laboratory to patients
Cancer Treatment Reviews
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway that has regulatory roles in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, and a critical role in tumorigenesis. In cancer, multiple studies have investigated the therapeutic targeting of the PI3K pathway, and multiple inhibitors targeting PI3K and its isoforms, protein kinase B/AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and other pathway proteins have been developed. For the treatment of solid tumors, only
... llosteric mTOR inhibitors, such as everolimus and temsirolimus, are currently approved for clinical use. This review describes the PI3K inhibitors that have progressed from the laboratory to late-stage clinical trials, and discusses the challenges that have prevented other compounds from doing the same. Challenges to the therapeutic effectiveness of some PI3K inhibitors include the absence of reliable and effective biomarkers, their limited efficacy as single agents, insufficient development of rational therapeutic combinations, the use of schedules with a variety of off-target effects, and suboptimal therapeutic exposures. Therefore, with regard to PI3K inhibitors currently in late-stage clinical trials, the identification of appropriate biomarkers of efficacy and the development of optimal combination regimens and dosing schedules are likely to be important for graduation into clinical practice.