Evaluation of Anti-Venom Potential of Areca catechu Seed Extract on Bungarus caeruleus Venom

Veena More, Abdullatif Bin Muhsinah, G. S. Latha, Abdulfattah Yahya M. Alhazmi, Osama Abdulaziz Ibrahim, Abdulkarim S. Binshaya, Mater H. Mahnashi, Hassan H. Almasoudi, Harshitha Gangadharappa, Sahana Nagappa Maruthi, Sindhoora Rao, Bhavya Janardhan (+4 others)
2022 Separations  
Areca catechu seeds and their extract/s are currently used to treat various ailments and infections including snakebites. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the inhibiting/neutralizing effect of ethyl acetate and aqueous ethanolic seed extracts of A. catechu on Bungarus caeruleus (krait) venom. The enzyme activities and their inhibition were evaluated using standard procedures (in vitro). In vivo studies were conducted using chick embryos and murine models. The extracts inhibited
more » ... aluronidase and phospholipase A2 activities. Protease activity was neutralized by the aqueous ethanolic extract only. The IC50 value of aqueous ethanolic extract for hyaluronidase was 0.001 g/mL, while that for the ethyl acetate extract for phospholipase A2 was 0.006 g/mL. In addition, both the extracts neutralized the indirect hemolysis and fibrinogenolytic activity induced by B. caeruleus venom. The LD50 for the chick embryos was 4.9 µg/egg. The 50 and 100 µg aqueous ethanolic extracts neutralized the LD50 and the challenging dose (3LD50) of venom effectively in the chick embryo model. The LD50 of B. caeruleus venom in mice was 0.1927 µg/kg; the extract extended the survival time of the mice from 25 min to 30 and 35 min in 1:10 and 1:20 ((w/w) venom:extract) ratios, respectively. The extract also neutralized myotoxic activity. The A. catechu seed extract showed promising inhibitory properties against B. caeruleus venom. In this regard, academia and industries should work collaboratively to develop and formulate a cost-effective first-aid drug.
doi:10.3390/separations9110360 fatcat:gtzx4s5yyzbjzfct6asgp5geha