Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of a Convection-Allowing Ensemble during the Hazardous Weather Testbed 2009 Spring Experiment. Part II: Ensemble Clustering over the Whole Experiment Period

Aaron Johnson, Xuguang Wang, Ming Xue, Fanyou Kong
2011 Monthly Weather Review  
Twenty-member real-time convection-allowing storm-scale ensemble forecasts with perturbations to model physics, dynamics, initial conditions (IC), and lateral boundary conditions (LBC) during the NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed Spring Experiment provide a unique opportunity to study the relative impact of different sources of perturbation on convection-allowing ensemble diversity. In Part II of this two-part study, systematic similarity/dissimilarity of hourly precipitation forecasts among
more » ... le members from the spring season of 2009 are identified using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) with a fuzzy object-based threat score (OTS), developed in Part I. In addition to precipitation, HCA is also performed on ensemble forecasts using the traditional Euclidean distance for wind speed at 10 m and 850 hPa, and temperature at 500 hPa. At early lead times (3 h, valid at 0300 UTC) precipitation forecasts cluster primarily by data assimilation and model dynamic core, indicating a dominating impact of models, with secondary clustering by microphysics. There is an increasing impact of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme on clustering relative to the microphysics scheme at later lead times. Forecasts of 10-m wind speed cluster primarily by the PBL scheme at early lead times, with an increasing impact of LBC at later lead times. Forecasts of midtropospheric variables cluster primarily by IC at early lead times and LBC at later lead times. The radar and Mesonet data assimilation (DA) show its impact, with members without DA in a distinct cluster, through the 12-h lead time (valid at 1200 UTC) for both precipitation and nonprecipitation variables. The implication for optimal ensemble design for storm-scale forecasts is also discussed. 1 CP resolution refers to grid spacing coarser than about 4 km, which requires cumulus parameterization schemes to account for subgrid-scale vertical redistribution of heat and moisture resulting from moist convection (Molinari and Dudek 1992).
doi:10.1175/mwr-d-11-00016.1 fatcat:tisnsupcg5dk7eg45oxring6ie