Early Immunological Effects of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: No Modulation by Ischemic Preconditioning in a Randomised Crossover Trial in Healthy Humans
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We examined whether IPC modulates the early inflammatory response after IRI. Nineteen healthy males participated in a randomised crossover trial with and without IPC before IRI. IPC and IRI were performed by cuff inflation on the forearm. IPC consisted of four cycles of five minutes followed by five minutes of reperfusion. IRI consisted of twenty
... ted of twenty minutes followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Blood was collected at baseline, 0 min, 85 min and 24 h after IRI. Circulating monocytes, T-cells subsets and dendritic cells together with intracellular activation markers were quantified by flow cytometry. Luminex measured a panel of inflammation-related cytokines in plasma. IRI resulted in dynamic regulations of the measured immune cells and their intracellular activation markers, however IPC did not significantly alter these patterns. Neither IRI nor the IPC protocol significantly affected the levels of inflammatory-related cytokines. In healthy volunteers, it was not possible to detect an effect of the investigated IPC-protocol on early IRI-induced inflammatory responses. This study indicates that protective effects of IPC on IRI is not explained by direct modulation of early inflammatory events.