Genetic and molecular alterations associated with oral squamous cell cancer (Review)

2009 Oncology Reports  
The development of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is a multistep process involving the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations modulated by genetic predisposition and environmental influences such as tobacco and alcohol use, chronic inflammation, and viral infections. All of these factors can lead to a wide range of genetic and molecular alterations that can be detected using a range of molecular studies. The alterations mostly affect two large groups of genes: oncogenes and tumor
more » ... es and tumor suppressor genes, which can be either inactivated or overexpressed through mutations, loss of heterozygosity, deletions, or epigenetic modifications such as methylation. Other molecules that are closely associated with tumor pathogenesis and prognosis also exist and warrant further study. Important advances in molecular biology are helping to shed light on oral cancer and thus aiding in the early diagnosis and development of new personalized treatment approaches. The purpose of the review is to explore the genetic and molecular alterations associated with OSCC.
doi:10.3892/or_00000565 pmid:19885577 fatcat:7oehoi6en5fxlprkfr3sk4kspq