A Survey on Vital Signs Detection Using Radar Techniques and Processing With FPGA Implementation

Ameen Bin Obadi, Ping Jack Soh, Omar Aldayel, Muataz Hameed Al-Doori, Marco Mercuri, Dominique Schreurs
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3zvded2esvg4xjqemaqzdrg3ra" style="color: black;">IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art advances in human vital signs detection using radar sensors, their integration and coexistence with communication systems, and their issues in spectrum sharing. The focus of this survey is to review the detection, monitoring, and tracking of vital signs, specifically the respiration rate and heartbeat rate over the recent five years. It is observed that in line with technological advancements, a multitude of radar types operating in a diverse
more &raquo; ... frequency spectra have been introduced with different hardware implementations, considering various detection scenarios, and applying multiple signal processing algorithms. The aim of these researches varies, from enhancing the detection accuracy, improving the processing speed, reducing the power consumption, simplifying the hardware used, lowering implementation costs, and the combinations of them. Besides that, this review also focuses on literature aimed at increasing the detection accuracy and reducing the processing time using FPGAs, prior to benchmarking them against other processing platforms. Finally, a perspective on the future of human vital signs detection using radar sensors concludes this review. is highly possible that radars and communication devices coexist in the same location. Such coexistence may result in both applications sharing the same spectrum and lead to interference. To facilitate coexistence in the radio spectrum, all radar sensors must comply with regulations of unlicensed operation. The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) in the US allows unlicensed UWB transmission in the 3.1 to 10.6 GHz range with an average transmitted power of less than -41.3dBm/MHz [4] . Radars in the unlicensed frequency band are increasingly being considered for indoor scanning and localization in coexistence with 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT). In other situations, radars and communication devices may utilize the same hardware to reduce cost and complexity. It is also foreseen in the near future that a growing number of communication devices and detection radars coexist and share the spectrum in a heterogenous way. Thus, advancements in techniques to mitigate such coexistence are one of the main issues currently being investigated. This survey provides a review of the state-of-the-art in this growing research area from the different aspects of processing platforms, detection algorithms, operating frequencies and wireless communication hardware. Such review is the first of its kind, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Some of these researches may not be necessarily applied for vital sign detection but can potentially be used in such application. The rest of this review is organized as follows. The next section will describe and summarize the technical background of radar principles, classifying the types of radar and the processing platforms used, with a specific focus on FPGAs, the signal processing algorithms, the operating frequency spectrum utilized, and the communication of data. Finally, this review ends with a future perspective of potential radar architectures and features that are most suited for applications in vital sign detection. This work intends to highlight the main challenges in vital sign detection using radar techniques and concentrate on its real-time detection aspect to depart from existing reviews available in literature. This is due to the need for alternative solutions and considerations for real-time radar detection, which include innovative parallel processing paradigms on reconfigurable processing devices such as the FPGA. This is the author's version of an article that has been published in this journal. Changes were made to this version by the publisher prior to publication. The final version of record is available at http://dx.
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