Shikonin promotes ubiquitination and degradation of cIAP1/2-mediated apoptosis and necrosis in triple negative breast cancer cells
Background Shikonin (SKO) is a natural naphthoquinone derived from Chinese herbal medicine Arnebiae Radix with high development potentials due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Overwhelming evidences have indicated that SKO can induce both necrosis and apoptosis in cancer cells, while the mechanisms for triple negative breast cancer cells is still need to be disclosed. Methods In this study, kinds of molecular biological technologies, including flow-cytometry, Western blot,
... y, Western blot, immunoprecipitation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as well as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), were applied for investigation on the underlying mechanisms of SKO induced necrosis and apoptosis for MDA-MB-231 cells. Inhibitors were also used for validation ofthe key signaling pathways involved in SKO triggered necrosis and apoptosis. Results We found that SKO significantly triggered necrosis and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Mechanism studies demonstrated that SKO significantly promoted the autoubiquitination levels and facilitated the proteasome dependent degradation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) and cIAP2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Autoubiquitination and degradation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 induced by SKO further led to significant decreased ubiquitination and inactivation of RIP1, which played an important role in inhibition of pro-survival and accelerating of necrosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor lactacystin significantly rescued the cell viability induced by treatment of SKO. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that SKO promotes the autoubiquitination and degradation of cIAP1 and cIAP2, which further induces the decrease of the ubiquitination of RIP1 to inhibit the activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and accelerate the necrosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. The disclosed mechanisms of SKO induced necrosis and apoptosis in our study is firstly reported, and it is believed that SKO could be considered as a potential candidate and further developed for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer.