Mechanisms Underlying Spontaneous and Induced Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Steven M. Pogwizd, John P. McKenzie, Michael E. Cain
1998 Circulation  
Background-To define the electrophysiological mechanism(s) of inducible and spontaneously occurring ventricular arrhythmias associated with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, 3-dimensional intraoperative mapping from 156 intramural sites was performed in 6 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiac transplantation. Methods and Results-Electrode density was sufficient to determine the mechanism for 52 of 74 beats of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) induced by programmed
more » ... stimulation and 9 of 11 beats of spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias. The first, second, and third extrastimuli (S 2 through S 4 ) conducted with progressively greater degrees of conduction delay (total activation times [TAs] of 144Ϯ5, 166Ϯ5, and 194Ϯ5 ms, respectively) owing to slow conduction and on occasion intramural block. The first beats of induced VT arose from subendocardial or subepicardial sites distant from areas of marked conduction delay by a focal mechanism on the basis of the absence of intervening electrical activity between the termination of the last extrastimulus and the initiation of VT (123Ϯ31 ms). Subsequent beats arose by a focal mechanism and conducted with a TA of 127Ϯ6 ms (PϭNS versus initiating beats of VT [118Ϯ9 ms]). Spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias initiated in the subendocardium by a focal mechanism and conducted with a TA of 138Ϯ5 ms. Tissue analysis demonstrated a variable degree of interstitial fibrosis at sites of focal activation. Sites of conduction delay or block typically exhibited marked interstitial and/or replacement fibrosis but were spatially distant from sites initiating VT. Conclusions-Spontaneous and induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with end-stage idiopathic cardiomyopathy can arise in the subendocardium or subepicardium by a focal mechanism. (Circulation. 1998;98:2404-2414.) Key Words: tachycardia Ⅲ heart failure Ⅲ mapping Three-Dimensional Intraoperative Mapping Transmural and transseptal ventricular mapping was performed as described previously. 7-9 Surface ECGs I, aVF, and V 5R were monitored. Twenty minutes before explantation, 39 plunge-needle electrodes were placed in the left and right ventricles and interventricular
doi:10.1161/01.cir.98.22.2404 pmid:9832485 fatcat:aou5ubfslfcu5cwn3d6kmvkqzy