BIOGEOCHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN Fe BIOMINERALIZATION: MAGNETITE AND SIDERITE FORMATION
Clays and Clay Minerals
The formation of siderite and magnetite by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria may play an important role in C and Fe geochemistry in subsurface and ocean sediments. The objective of this study was to identify environmental factors that control the formation of siderite (FeCO 3 ) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. Psychrotolerant (<20ºC), mesophilic (20À35ºC) and thermophilic (>45ºC) Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were used to examine the reduction of a poorly crystalline iron oxide,
... ne iron oxide, akaganeite (b-FeOOH), without a soluble electron shuttle, anthraquinone disulfuonate (AQDS), in the presence of N 2 , N 2 -CO 2 (80:20, V:V), H 2 and H 2 -CO 2 (80:20, V:V) headspace gases as well as in HCO 3 À -buffered medium (30À210 mM) under a N 2 atmosphere. Iron biomineralization was also examined under different growth conditions such as salinity, pH, incubation time, incubation temperature and electron donors. Magnetite formation was dominant under a N 2 and a H 2 atmosphere. Siderite formation was dominant under a H 2 -CO 2 atmosphere. A mixture of magnetite and siderite was formed in the presence of a N 2 -CO 2 headspace. Akaganeite was reduced and transformed to siderite and magnetite in a HCO 3 À -buffered medium (>120 mM) with lactate as an electron donor in the presence of a N 2 atmosphere. Biogeochemical and environmental factors controlling the phases of the secondary mineral suite include medium pH, salinity, electron donors, atmospheric composition and incubation time. These results indicate that microbial Fe(III) reduction may play an important role in Fe and C biogeochemistry as well as C sequestration in natural environments.