Interactions of a hemidesmosome component and actinin family members
Journal of Cell Science
Hemidesmosomes are multimeric protein complexes that attach epithelial cells to their underlying matrix and serve as cell surface anchorage sites for the keratin cytoskeleton. Two hemidesmosome components, the alpha6beta4 integrin heterodimer and a human autoantigen termed BP180, are transmembrane proteins that link the extracellular matrix to the keratin network in cells. Here, we report that actinin-4, an actin-bundling protein, is a potential binding partner for BP180. Using yeast
... ng yeast two-hybrid, we have mapped the binding site for BP180 to the C-terminal region of actinin-4. This site contains two EF-hand, Ca2+ regulation domains and shares 87% sequence homology with the same region in actinin-1. Consistent with this, BP180 can bind actinin-1 in both the yeast two-hybrid assay and in immunoprecipitation assays. To determine whether the EF-hand domain is a consensus binding sequence for BP180, we tested whether other proteins with this domain bind BP180. None of the proteins tested including calmodulin, with 4 EF-hand domains, and myosin regulatory light chain, with 1 EF-hand domain, interacts with BP180 in yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation studies, suggesting that the interaction between BP180 and actinin family members is specific. We have compared the distribution of actinin-1 and actinin-4 with that of BP180 in MCF-10A and pp126 cells. Surprisingly, BP180 localizes not only to sites of cell-substratum interaction, but is also present at sites of cell-cell contacts where it co-distributes with both actinin-1 and actinin-4 as well as other adherens junction proteins. In oral tissues, BP180 is present along the basement membrane and at cell-cell contact sites in basal epithelial cells where it co-distributes with adherens junction proteins. Since BP180 antibodies inhibit association of junction proteins at sites of cell-cell contact in oral keratinocytes, these results suggest that BP180 may play a role in establishing cell-cell interactions. We discuss a role for BP180 in crosstalk between cell-matrix and cell-cell junctions.