Proper Shoulder Position for Subclavian Venipuncture
Norihito Kitagawa, Mayuko Oda, Tadahide Totoki, Noriaki Miyazaki, Ichiroh Nagasawa, Takahiko Nakazono, Tsutomu Tamai, Masatoshi Morimoto
Although the Trendelenburg position and shoulder bracing are recommended for safe subclavian venipuncture, the optimal shoulder position remains unclear. The current study observed spatial relations between the subclavian vein and surrounding structures using multislice computed tomography to determine optimal shoulder position for safe subclavian venipuncture and then conducted a small follow-up clinical trial to confirm these findings. Methods: Thoracic multislice computed tomography was
... rmed for seven adult volunteers at three shoulder positions: elevated (up); neutral; and lowered caudally (down). Overlap and distance between the clavicle and the subclavian vein and the diameter of the subclavian vein were measured. Anatomical relations between the subclavian artery and vein were also observed. The success rate for subclavian venipuncture was then compared between the up and down shoulder positions in 30 patients. Results: In the multislice computed tomography study, the mean overlap ratios between clavicle and subclavian vein in the up, neutral, and down positions were 33.5, 36.9, and 40.0%, respectively. Overlap increased with lower shoulder position (up < neutral < down; P < 0.05). The mean distances between the clavicle and the subclavian vein in the up, neutral, and down positions were 6.8, 5.0, and 3.6 mm, respectively. Again, distance decreased with lower shoulder position (up < neutral < down; P < 0.05). The diameter of the subclavian vein did not differ among the three shoulder positions. The success rate for subclavian venipuncture was significantly higher in the down position compared with the up position (P ؍ 0.003). Conclusions: Lowered shoulder position increases both overlap and proximity between the clavicle and the subclavian vein, producing a more constant relation between the clavicle and the subclavian vein, without affecting vein diameter. Proper use of a lowered shoulder position should thus increase the safety and reliability of subclavian venipuncture compared with other shoulder positions.