High-mobility group box-1 promotes vascular calcification in diabetic mice via endoplasmic reticulum stress
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Several studies reported the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in vascular calcification. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) plays a substantial role in diabetes and its complications. However, relatively little information is available regarding the association between HMGB-1 and calcification, and the underlying mechanism has still remained elusive. Therefore, in the present study, we attempted to indicate whether HMGB-1 could promote vascular calcification via ERS in diabetes. After
... induction of diabetes by Streptozotocin (STZ), mice were treated with glycyrrhizin (Gly) or 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA). Mineral deposition was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and calcium assay. In cell experiments, calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was performed with Alizarin Red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and RT-PCR. Expression and location of HMGB-1 in aortic tissue were detected by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Diabetic mice demonstrated increased HMGB-1 expression, ERS and vascular calcification. However, inhibition of HMGB-1 with Gly or inhibition of ERS with 4-PBA ameliorated the enhanced vascular calcification and ERS in diabetic mice. In vitro experiments unveiled that inhibition of HMGB-1 attenuated advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced ERS in VSMCs. In addition, AGEs promoted translocation and secretion of HMGB-1 in VSMCs, which was reversed by 4-PBA. Moreover, VSMCs exhibited increased mineralization and osteogenic gene expressions in response to HMGB-1 and AGEs. However, inhibition of ERS with 4-PBA partially, although noticeably, attenuated VSMC calcification induced by HMGB-1. Thus, diabetes induced translocation and secretion of HMGB-1 via ERS, which resulted in calcification in diabetic mice and in AGEs-treated VSMCs.