Associations of neighborhood physical and crime environments with obesity-related outcomes in Jamaica

Colette Cunningham-Myrie, Katherine P. Theall, Novie Younger-Coleman, Lisa-Gaye Greene, Parris Lyew-Ayee, Rainford Wilks, Luisa N. Borrell
2021 PLoS ONE  
Objective To examine whether proximity and density of public open spaces, public parks, street connectivity, and serious and violent crimes were associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) within and across levels of urbanicity, sex and socioeconomic status (SES) in Jamaica, a small island developing state (SIDS). Methods Secondary analysis was conducted using data from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008 (JHLS II). All respondents were geocoded to area of
more » ... ce in Enumeration Districts (EDs). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were derived and multilevel mixed effects regression models applied to 2529 participants nested within 101 EDs from all 14 parishes in Jamaica. Results There was significant clustering across neighborhoods for mean BMI (ICC = 4.16%) and mean WC (ICC = 4.42%). In fully adjusted models statistically significant associations included: increased mean BMI among men, with increased intersection density/ km2 (β = 0.02; 95% CI = 1.96 x10-3, 0.04, p = 0.032); increased mean WC among urban residents with increased crimes/km2/yr (β = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.16, p<0.01) and among persons in the middle class, with further distance away from public parks (β = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.53, p<0.01). Conclusions Neighborhood physical and crime environments were associated with obesity-related outcomes in Jamaica. Policymakers in SIDS such as Jamaica should also note the important differences by urbanicity, sex and SES in prevention efforts designed to stem the growing obesity epidemic.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0249619 pmid:33819299 fatcat:q6wzrt6a3vebzl4cjfgc3zex2a