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As a result of recent work-hours limitations and concerns for patient safety, innovations in extraclinical surgical simulation have become a desired part of residency education. Current simulation models, including cadaveric, animal, bench-top, virtual reality (VR) and robotic simulators are increasingly used in surgical training programs. Advances in telesurgery, three-dimensional (3D) printing, and the incorporation of patient-specific anatomy are paving the way for simulators to becomedoi:10.21037/atm.2016.12.24 pmid:28090509 pmcid:PMC5220028 fatcat:btb34dj3kndllhbtb67gmcsm6i