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Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) allows computing on encrypted data, enabling secure offloading of computation to untrusted serves. Though it provides ideal security, FHE is expensive when executed in software, 4 to 5 orders of magnitude slower than computing on unencrypted data. These overheads are a major barrier to FHE's widespread adoption. We present F1, the first FHE accelerator that is programmable, i.e., capable of executing full FHE programs. F1 builds on an in-depth architecturalarXiv:2109.05371v2 fatcat:i2577nw2mrafvkp75zokllu72q