Nicotine therapy in smoking cessation and its current trends

Biju Abhijith, Sabu Sowparnika Treasa, Dharan Shaiju S
2020 Journal of Pulmonology and Respiratory Research  
Smoking is a leading cause of premature death and disease. Tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death in the worldwide and is causally linked to several cancers. Cigarettes are a highly effective way of delivering the addictive drug nicotine. They do so by burning tobacco to create an aerosol of ultrafine particles that carries nicotine deep into the lungs, where it is rapidly absorbed, then travels through the left heart, reaching the brain in a few seconds. The combustion process also
more » ... stion process also generates carcinogens, oxidizing agents, and other toxins. Nicotine addiction is a chronic brain disorder. Prolonged tobacco use results in physiologic dependence and a behavioral compulsion to use tobacco. A number of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have led to increases in quitting and thus to significant benefits to public health Nicotine replacement products (gums, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and lozenge), bupropion and varenicline used with counseling by physicians double the cessation rates at one year. Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. Nicotine withdrawal often makes the process of quitting difficult. The choice of any pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be guided by an individual's pref¬erence, contraindications, and precautions for use. Simple advice to stop smoking results in an increased rate of quitting, and counseling increases abstinence rates as a function of time spent with the patient. The emerging trends for smoking cessation include the advancement of technology like smartphones, applications, etc. Nowadays smartphones, applications, E-cigarettes, and some new behavioral techniques and meditations, yoga are helping in the cessation of smoking in different aspects.
doi:10.29328/journal.jprr.1001017 fatcat:bd66zqsiufhlvbs6py73q2hpma