Online) An Open Access

Vismay Naik, Parul Bhatt
2014 International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences   unpublished
Vitamin B12 is an essential cofactor that is integral to methylation processes important in reactions related to DNA and cell metabolism. It is an essential nutrient needed for proper nervous system function and for the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Deficiencies in B12 can lead to inefficient erythropoiesis and megaloblastic anemia. Causes of B12 deficiency include malnutrition, lack of intrinsic factor (IF) and/or malabsorption of protein-bound vitamin B12, general
more » ... , and competition for vitamin B12. It's clinical manifestations are variable with neurological, psychiatric, oral and dermatological signs and symptoms. Treatment is replacement of B12 via parentral or oral administration. Biomarkers of B12 status include serum B12 levels, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum homocysteine and serum methylmalonic acid. This review presents a concise summary of the most up to date evidence on how to diagnose and manage vitamin B12 deficiency.