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Discussion on Fundamental Problems of Physics Hidden in Cosmology

Maurizio Michelini

2016
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Applied Physics Research
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<p class="1Body">Astronomers and physicists denounce difficulties in carrying out Cosmological Research in the middle of pseudoscientific strategies. At present, Cosmological modelling follows either some revised Expanding model (i.e. Accelerating universe) or the Static-Evolving model based on the large and old universe observed in the last decades, which convinced astronomers to abandon the Big bang and the Recession of galaxies (Doppler interpretation of Hubble's redshift). Research on
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... . Research on gravitation is made more difficult due to the presence of some misconceptions that hindered the elaboration of the Quantum theory of gravitation. Some years ago we suggested leaving the strategy of quantising Newton's pulling gravitation, since the very nature of quanta is to generate a Quantum Pushing forces between particles, due to the mutual shielding effect between two particles immersed in a uniform flux of quanta. Equating the Quantum Pushing force to the measured gravitational force, gives us the flux f<sub>o</sub> and others constants of micro-quanta (see Table 1). This quantum concept in Gravitational theory allows to by pass all mathematical and physical problems that hindered the old - and not very clear - project of harmonizing Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity. Some papers published in the last decade, particularly on Applied Physics Research, showed that the flux of micro-quanta filling the universe is able to solve the following problems: <strong>1</strong>) generation of the Quantum gravitational force (see par.6) and the Inertial forces (see par.5), <strong>2</strong>) the homogeneous cosmological redshift (par.6.2) coming from the collisions of micro-quanta with photons, <strong>3</strong>) the cosmic collapse - threatening the old Einstein's static universe - is prevented by the exponential attenuation theoretically required (see par.6.1) in the extended Quantum Pushing gravity, <strong>4</strong>) all photons emitted from luminous stars are exponentially redshifted by collisions with micro-quanta and constitute the CMB, i.e. the millimetre waves uniformly coming from cosmos, measured in 1964.</p><p class="1Body">These four results brought revolution in the preceding physics, as described in the Introduction. Whether the hypothesised Big bang happened or not, the enormous stellar radiation emitted in the universe must be taken into account in generating the CMB. Strangely, supporters of the Initial Explosion avoided to assess this contribution, which is anyway required because for at least 13 Giga-years all stars of receding galaxies continued their emissions. A calculation (Michelini, 2013) revealed that assuming everywhere (par. 6.3) the cosmological redshift z = exp(x/L<sub>o</sub>) -1 (where x is the distance of the luminous source and L<sub>o</sub> is the mean free path in space of micro-quanta) the energy of all redshifted photons results about equal to the measured CMB.</p><p class="1Body">Part 2 shows that the same analytical form of redshift, due to the same dependence on Compton's effect, was obtained (Brynjolfsson, 2005) from the theory of plasma redshift at Large Universe. But this formulation remained useless due to the difficulty of verifying the electron plasma density at far intergalactic spaces. It was noticed that the new Cosmological redshift gives, at small distances x << L<sub>o</sub> , the same result z x/L<sub>o</sub> of the Hubble's redshift valid in Near Universe, demonstrating that the characteristic length L<sub>o</sub> does not vary across the universe. Thanks to the measurements of Planck's satellite, L<sub>o</sub> resulted equal to about 1.3x10<sup>26</sup>. This gave credibility to Static-evolving Cosmology, where the mean free path L<sub>o</sub> of micro-quanta rules not only the cosmological redshift, but also the extended Quantum Pushing Gravity and the CMB cosmic background, showing the unitary structure of space.</p><p class="1Body">Part 3 shows the advancement that micro-quanta Paradigm introduced in physics by correctly obtaining the relativistic equations of motion (in S. R this was done on pure kinematical bases) from the dynamical balance of momentum released to particles through collisions with the flux of micro-quanta. This advancement makes free S.R. from the deadly paradoxes that came out along its development. A great advancement was also the establishment of the pulsating Quantum Pushing Gravity in substitution of the Newtonian Gravity.</p><p class="1Body">Part 4 shows that the classical theory of the globule "collapse" proposed by Jeans in the first '900 does not constitute a model of Star Formation. Applying that theory to the Bok's globules - discovered in 1945 - gives no definite results since the classical energy balance of the contracting globules inadequate to obtain the contraction velocity. The Jeans' hypothesis of the free fall contraction appears ridiculous. observational evidence that Bok's globules are incubators of stars needs an adequate theoretical model of Star Forming which allows to calculate the Incubation time. The gravitational accretion of galactic gas upon an extinct star, was developed to explain the formation of obscure Supermasses in AGN's. The calculated incubation times resulted well higher than the Big bang age of universe. Accretion can be also adopted for small inert masses (fragments of Supernovae, cosmic powder, planetary nebulae, etc) giving rise to Star Forming models (par. 9 bis).</p><p class="1Body">In Part 5 is pointed out that any kind of quanta colliding with particles release some energy that is ruled by Compton's equation. Calculating the energy that micro-quanta of pulsating Quantum Pushing Gravity due to the Hydrogen nucleus, release at regular intervals on the electron, it is found an average power p<sub>e</sub> 2x10<sup>-54</sup> watt. This is not a Hypothesis, but a result standing on well founded Principles of Physics.</p>

doi:10.5539/apr.v8n5p19
fatcat:rvplw4iqjjbmnhugcs563t4agu