Inactivation of Rb+ and Na+ occlusion on (Na+,K+)-ATPase by modification of carboxyl groups
Journal of Biological Chemistry
This paper demonstrates and characterizes inactivation by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) of Rb+ and Na+ occlusion in pig kidney (Na+,K+)-ATPase. Rb+ and Na+ occlusion dependent on oligomycin are measured with a manual assay. Parallel measurement of phosphorylation (by Pi plus ouabain) and Na+ or Rb+ occlusion lead to stoichiometries of 3 Na+ or 2 Rb+ per pump molecule. Inactivation of cation occlusion by DCCD shows the following features: (a) Rb+ and Na+ occlusion are inactivated with
... nactivated with identical rates and (b) DCCD concentration dependence shows first-order kinetics and also proportionality to the ratio of DCCD to protein, (c) Rb+ and Na+ occlusion are equally protected from DCCD, by Rb+ ions with high affinity (or Na+ ions with lower affinity), (d) inactivation is only slightly pH-dependent between 6 and 8.5 but (e) is significantly accelerated by several hydrophobic amines while a water-soluble nucleophile, glycine ethyl ester has no effect, and (f) inactivation is exactly correlated with inactivation of (Na+,K+)-ATPase activity of ATP-dependent Na+/K+ exchange in reconstituted vesicles and with the magnitude of E1Na+----E2(Rb+) conformational transitions measured with fluorescence probes. The simplest hypothesis to explain the results is that DCCD modifies one (or a small number of) critical carboxyl residues in a non-aqueous cation binding domain and so blocks occlusion of 2 Rb+ or 3 Na+ ions. The results suggest further that Na+ and K+(Rb+) bind to the same sites and are transported sequentially on the same trans-membrane segments. A second effect of the DCCD treatment is a 4-8-fold shift of the conformational equilibrium E2(Rb+)----E1Rb+ toward E1Rb+. This is detected by (a) reduction in apparent Rb+ affinity for Rb+ occlusion or Rb+/Rb+ exchange in vesicles and (b) direct demonstration of an increased rate of E2(K+)----E1Na+ and decreased rate of E1Na+----E2(K+). This effect is not protected against by Rb+ ions and probably reflects modification of a second group of residues. Modification of (Na+,K+)-ATPase by carbodiimides is complex. Depending on the nature of the carbodiimide (water- or lipid-soluble), ratio of carbodiimide to protein, and perhaps source of the enzyme, inactivation might result either from modification of critical carboxyls, as suggested by this work, or from internal cross-linking as proposed by Pedemonte, C. H. and Kaplan, J. H. ((1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 3632-3639).