Adequacy of Anesthesia and Pupillometry for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Michał Jan Stasiowski, Izabela Szumera, Piotr Wardas, Seweryn Król, Jakub Żak, Anna Missir, Aleksandra Pluta, Ewa Niewiadomska, Lech Krawczyk, Przemysław Jałowiecki, Beniamin Oskar Grabarek
Inadequate intraoperative analgesia causes the deterioration of the condition of the surgical field (CSF) as a result of hemodynamic instability. Analgesia monitors are used to guide remifentanil) infusion to optimize intraoperative analgesia. The main aim of the current randomized controlled trial was to investigate the potential advantages of intraoperative analgesia monitoring using surgical Pleth index (SPI)- or pupillometry (PRD)-guided remifentanil administration for managing the volume
more » ... total intraoperative blood loss (TEIBL), CSF, and length of operation (LOP) in comparison with the standard practice in patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The 89 patients in our study were grouped as follows: 30 patients were assigned to the general analgesia (GA) group, 31 patients were assigned to the SPI group, and 28 patients were assigned to the PRD group. The speed of remifentanil infusion was accelerated by 50% when SPI, PRD, or BSS were increased by >15 points, >5%, or >2, respectively, in adjacent groups until their normalization. The SPI group showed significantly lower TEIBL in comparison to the GA group (165.2 ± 100.2 vs. 283.3 ± 193.5 mL; p < 0.05) and a higher mean arterial pressure (MAP; 73.9 ± 8 vs. 69.2 ± 6.8 mmHg; p < 0.05). In the PRD group, a shorter LOP compared with the GA group was observed (63.1 ± 26.7 min vs. 82.6 ± 33.1 min; p < 0.05). It was noted that the PRD group had a lower total remifentanil consumption than the SPI group (1.3 ± 1.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.9 mg; p < 0.05). In ASA I-III patients undergoing ESS, intraoperative monitoring based on state entropy and SPI values can optimize the CSF and reduce TEIBL, whereas monitoring based on state entropy and PRD measurements can optimize the cost effectiveness of anesthetic drugs and the use of the operation room.
doi:10.3390/jcm10204683 pmid:34682812 fatcat:ie5bnyccavbkda3xlcaizvfgiy