Prospective and Retrospective Memory Deficits Associated with Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

Thomas Heffernan, Terence O'Neill
2014 The Open Addiction Journal  
The recreational use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) has been associated with a range of health and psychological problems in the past, but very little research has considered what impact AAS might have upon cognition and memory. The present study aimed to identify whether the recreational use of AAS is linked to deficits in everyday retrospective memory (RM) and everyday prospective memory (PM). We assessed self-reports of RM and PM in 25 regular AAS users and 28 Non-Users (all were
more » ... sers (all were males, regular gym users and aged between 18-30 years) using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. A Recreational Drug Use Questionnaire was used to measure AAS use and alcohol use. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale measuredtwo dimensions of mood (anxiety and depression). The results revealed thatrecreational AAS users reported significantly more everyday RM lapses (AAS Mean = 2.41 vs Non-Users Mean = 1.66; p<0.001)and significantly more everyday PM lapses (AAS Mean = 2.79 vs Non-User Mean = 1.84; p<0.001) than the Non-User group. These findings were not attributable to other substance use or mood variations. This is the first study to demonstrate everyday memory deficits associated with AAS use and it is suggested that such deficits be added to the growing list of health and cognitive problems associated with AAS use.
doi:10.2174/1874941001407010017 fatcat:smzgp7jejjakxn5vwkv7xzxspe