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Smad3 in the mammary epithelium has a nonredundant role in the induction of apoptosis, but not in the regulation of proliferation or differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta
Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates proliferation, morphogenesis, and functional differentiation in the mammary gland and plays complex roles in mammary tumorigenesis. Here we show that the signaling mediators Smad1-Smad5 are expressed at all stages of mammary gland development. To begin to investigate which Smads mediate which TGF-beta responses, we have analyzed mammary gland development in Smad3 null mice. Smad3 null virgin females showed delayed mammary gland development.pmid:11959813 fatcat:grafdwlzgvgxdhute2guk4ib5m