Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis Aspects and Nutrition Therapy in Relation to both IgE and IgG Cow's Milk Protein Allergies among a Population of Saudi Arabia: A Literature Review

Mashail A Baghlaf, Noura M S Eid
2021 Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal  
Cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) becoming a major public health issue that has attracted the attention of health professionals and researchers. This paper aimed to review the important aspects of both IgE and IgG types of cow's milk protein allergy in terms of prevalence, clinical manifestation, risk factors, other health-related issues and nutritional therapy proposed for such allergies in the adult and pediatric population in Saudi Arabia. A search on "cow's milk allergy" was done using
more » ... Google Scholar and Scopus Engine for published papers between 1993 and 2020 to find studies yielding knowledge on that context. The prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) among infants is now in the range of 2–3%. This type of allergy is also detected in adulthood but less frequently. CMPA is defined as an immunological reaction to specific proteins in milk. CMPA is classified based on its type as an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated form and an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-mediated form, each type representing different immunological pathways. The presence of Genetic aspects, family history and short duration of breastfeeding in the infant are among the risk factors contributing to this form of allergy. Its manifestations mainly present as skin presentation, followed by the gastrointestinal and respiratory presentation in most cases in addition to a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction that may occur in 12% of cases. food allergy committees have developed strict diagnosis criteria, including blood testing for food-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE), a skin prick test and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) as the gold standard. A diet free of cow's milk protein (CMP) allergen and including the appropriate alternative milk formula is the first line of prevention recommended by many organizations and food allergy experts. As for Saudi Arabia, more research and clinical trials are required to discuss the various aspects of adult and pediatric CMPA and to provide a better understanding along with good control strategies implementation.
doi:10.12944/crnfsj.9.2.02 fatcat:nug4khrrjbgz5cxwfq3c56us2q