Evaluating the Effects of Modern Movement on Contemporary Residential Buildings in Iran's Capital City-Tehran

Saereh Zabihi, Elvan Yılmaz
In the late 19th and early 20th century, beside all rough and fast changes in European and American societies, architects, also started to abandon past styles toward a form of architecture that had regarded to functional concerns and had no roots in classic styles. After World War I, these new tendencies in architecture (Modern Architecture) were named as International Style that developed simple, geometric, figures and unadorned facades, and deserted any usage of historical references. After
more » ... references. After extension of the Iranian's communication with western countries, during the 20th century, tendencies toward Modern Architecture reached to Iran. As the results, since the beginning of 20 th century, beside gradual political, economical, cultural and demographic transformations that have happened in Iranian society, some of the dominant principles and characteristics of Iranian architecture began to be changed. This point was the inception for the new architectural tendencies, in Iran. Subsequently one of the most important Iranian architectural fields that were affected roughly was residential buildings. This study was intended, to determine the influences and the effects of the Modern Residential Buildings characteristics, in respect to formal design issues like Free plan, Free designed façade etc. as well as functional issues like Separation of bedrooms for family members or Applying added toilet and bathroom together in house etc., in terms of contemporary residential buildings in Tehran. So, it was in the form of comparative study, among world Modern Residential Building characteristics, and Tehran Contemporary Residential Buildings, which helps to Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer (http://www.novapdf.com) iv determine those effects and influences, during the contemporary time (after 1925) on residential buildings in Tehran. The study was based on three periods of contemporary residential buildings in Tehran, which were selected for analysis. Residences of first period were constructed during 1925 to 1941, Residences of second period during 1941 to 1979, and Residences of third period were constructed after 1979. Fifteen different residences were selected from each period, and totally, 45 residential buildings have been analyzed. As a result of the study, it has been concluded that; during contemporary era in Tehran Residential Buildings, several characteristics and principles of the world Modern Residential Buildings were applied, including; having low or average house-area, changing the type of residential buildings (from villa to multistory and row housing type), applying and using industrialized method prefabricated elements in construction and applying skeletal system for houses construction, etc. On the other hand, about other studied subjects like; rejecting application of decoration in houses or applying open plan type or using exposed structures, the results showed that; those characteristics were not applied more in Tehran contemporary residences.