Mitochondria, oxidative stress, and temporal lobe epilepsy
Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction are contributing factors to various neurological disorders. Recently, there has been increasing evidence supporting the association between mitochondrial oxidative stress and epilepsy. Although certain inherited epilepsies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, little is known about its role in acquired epilepsies such as temporal lobe epilepsy. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction are emerging as key factors that not only result
... rom seizures, but may also contribute to epileptogenesis. The occurrence of epilepsy increases with age, and mitochondrial oxidative stress is a leading mechanism of aging and age-related degenerative disease, suggesting a further involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in seizure generation. Mitochondria have critical cellular functions that effect neuronal excitability including production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), fatty acid oxidation, control of apoptosis and necrosis, regulation of amino acid cycling, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, and regulation of cytosolic Ca 2+ homeostasis. Mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production making them uniquely vulnerable to oxidative stress and damage which can further affect cellular macromolecule function, the ability of the electron transport chain to produce ATP, antioxidant defenses, mitochondrial DNA stability, and synaptic glutamate homeostasis. Oxidative damage to one or more of these cellular targets may affect neuronal excitability and increase seizure susceptibility. The specific targeting of mitochondrial oxidative stress, dysfunction, and bioenergetics with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments may be a novel avenue for attenuating epileptogenesis and seizure initiation.