Improving the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke on non-contrast CT using deep learning: a multicenter study
This study aimed to develop a deep learning (DL) model to improve the diagnostic performance of EIC and ASPECTS in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Acute ischemic stroke patients were retrospectively enrolled from 5 hospitals. We proposed a deep learning model to simultaneously segment the infarct and estimate ASPECTS automatically using baseline CT. The model performance of segmentation and ASPECTS scoring was evaluated using dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and ROC, respectively. Four raters
... icipated in the multi-reader and multicenter (MRMC) experiment to fulfill the region-based ASPECTS reading under the assistance of the model or not. At last, sensitivity, specificity, interpretation time and interrater agreement were used to evaluate the raters' reading performance. In total, 1391 patients were enrolled for model development and 85 patients for external validation with onset to CT scanning time of 176.4 ± 93.6 min and NIHSS of 5 (IQR 2-10). The model achieved a DSC of 0.600 and 0.762 and an AUC of 0.876 (CI 0.846-0.907) and 0.729 (CI 0.679-0.779), in the internal and external validation set, respectively. The assistance of the DL model improved the raters' average sensitivities and specificities from 0.254 (CI 0.22-0.26) and 0.896 (CI 0.884-0.907), to 0.333 (CI 0.301-0.345) and 0.915 (CI 0.904-0.926), respectively. The average interpretation time of the raters was reduced from 219.0 to 175.7 s (p = 0.035). Meanwhile, the interrater agreement increased from 0.741 to 0.980. With the assistance of our proposed DL model, radiologists got better performance in the detection of AIS lesions on NCCT.