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This study aims to investigate the efficacy of XP endo finisher and passive ultrasonic irrigation for smear layer removal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and method: The root canals of 36 extracted single rooted mandibular premolars were selected for the study. All specimens were randomly distributed into the following 3 groups: Group I(Control): conventional irrigation by syringe Group II: passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and, Group III: XP endo finisher. In all groupsdoi:10.22271/oral.2021.v7.i4d.1381 fatcat:o5234kabsrdf5ozdjsi6srkbzq