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Kidney stone disease, also known as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones typically form in the kidney and leave the body in the urine stream. A small stone may pass without causing symptoms. If a stone grows to more than 5 millimeters (0.2 in), it can cause blockage of the ureter, resulting in severe pain in the lower back or abdomen. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outdoor patientsdoi:10.5281/zenodo.4436078 fatcat:ekjk5fkr2zeltkd5ps7uus34la