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Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point (MPP) which depends on panels temperature and on irradiance conditions. The issue of MPPT has been addressed in different ways in the literature but, especially for low-cost implementations, the perturb and observe (P&O) maximum power point tracking algorithm is the most commonly used method due to its ease of implementation.doi:10.1109/tpel.2005.850975 fatcat:qb5frexrhvbonepjy7t7pdbvt4