A Holistic Routing Protocol Design in Underground Wireless Sensor Networks

Di Wu, Renfa Li, Lichun Bao
2008 2008 The 4th International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks  
The traditional networking builds on layered protocol architecture to isolate the complexities in different layers. It has been realized that real-life wireless sensor networks (WSNs) must be considered holistically across different layers for optimum performance. We consider a special case of WSNs that is deployed in underground tunnels. Underground communications present unique signal propagation characteristics due to the geographic and geological features, which in turn impact the
more » ... mpact the underground network deployment and multi-hop routing patterns. We propose an efficient routing algorithm, called BRIT (Bounce Routing in Tunnels), for underground WSNs, and evaluate BRIT against the bottomline AODV in terms of network throughput, packet loss rate, stability and latencies using simulations. The contributions of the paper include a hybrid signal propagation model in three dimentional underground tunnels, an assortment of sensor deployment strategies in tunnels, an integrated routing metric (forwarding speed), and a route suppression mechanism. Recently, an emerging communication technology that uses Impulse Radio Ultra Wide Band (IR-UWB) has been extensively studied [4], [21]. IR-UWB can potentially provide high data rate, highly accurate ranging, and strong resistance to multi-path and interference, thus becomes the ideal choice of underground communication in tunnels. Li et al. explored the applicability of UWB channels in coal mines for underground communication purposes [11] and Sheng et al. discussed the feasibility of modeling propagation model based on the freespace model for UWB systems [7]. Many networking algorithms have been proposed according to the unique characteristics of underground tunnels. Kim et al. analyzed the spatial reuse through tuning transmit power, carrier sense threshold and data rate [9]. Li et al. proposed the structure-aware self-adaptive WSN [13], and later designed a render-path way for hole management and routing based on location [12]. Furthermore, the geographic information [10], [2] and virtual coordinate [19] were applied for routing and boundary recognition purposes, respectively. However, because of the complexities of underground tunnel communication systems, a holistic design paradigm has to be considered, and a cross-layer design of routing protocols are necessary for efficient communication in underground tunnel environments. Tunnel modeling in three dimensions [1], signal propagation models [3], [5], sensor deployment patterns are the key factors to be considered in order to provide a practical routing protocol in such environments. Our contributions in this paper are many folds. After first characterizing and modeling the mining tunnel environments in terms of the tunnel geometry, we present
doi:10.1109/msn.2008.41 dblp:conf/msn/WuLB08 fatcat:6pacx3uyjbcdhmt2idiaqeqj7y