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This chapter points out major ways to reduce the ecological and health impacts of metal working fluids (MWFs). In the continuous quest for dry machining, only one process can offer a near-term solution for practical applications. This process uses a minimum quantity of lubrication and is referred to as "near-dry". In near-dry machining (NDM), an air-oil mixture called an aerosol is fed onto the machining zone. Compared to dry machining, NDM substantially enhances cutting performance in terms ofdoi:10.1007/978-1-84800-213-5_7 fatcat:cnxbfd37cbdjbdkiiachxnzcwe