Genome-wide Association Study on Cadmium Contents of Temperate Japonica Varieties

Sang-Beom Lee, Kyu-Won Kim, Min-Young Yoon, Gyeong-Jin Kim, Ji-Hyock Yoo, Won-Il Kim, Byeong-Churl Moon, Sang-Won Park, Yong-Jin Park
2016 Korean Journal of Breeding Science  
Objective of this study was to investigate the difference of cadmium (Cd) levels in rice grains from non-polluted fields and to define the gene associated with Cd uptake for producing safety food. Cd was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Cd in rice grains was 0.943 ㎍/㎏ and Cd levels ranged from 0.050 to 5.699 ㎍/㎏. Genome-Wide Association study (GWAS) based on phenotype data for Cd levels was performed. However, results of GWAS were
more » ... ults of GWAS were affected by subpopulation structure and caused false positive. Therefore, GWAS for rice ecotypes (temperate Japonica, tropical Japonica, Indica, Aus, Aromatic, and Admixture) was performed to minimize false positive. GWAS results showed that Os01g0611300, and Os11g0444900 genes have significant correlation with Cd levels in rice grains. The sequences of these genes were compared to sequence positions of each other gene (haplotype analysis). According to the results of haplotype analysis, Cd levels of non-synonymous group were higher than other groups and sequence of non-synonymous group was similar to that of Indica. These results were corresponding to the previous research result that Cd levels of Indica were higher than Japonica. Therefore, candidate genes detected through GWAS need to be examined by knock-out or cross breeding. 서 언 카드뮴은 납, 수은과 더불어 환경에 폭넓게 존재하고 있는 중금속 중 하나로 한번 환경에 노출되면 토양과 수질에 축적되어 식물의 생육을 저하시킨다(Uraguchi et al. 2012). 그리고 카드뮴 에 오염된 물과 음식을 사람이 섭취하였을 경우 골연화 증상과 신장 이상을 유발한다(Horiguchi et al. 2010). 따라서 카드뮴 노출을 최소화하기 위해 중국과 EU에서는 곡류에 있어 카드뮴 함량 기준을 0.2 ㎍/㎏, 호주는 0.1 ㎍/㎏로 설정하였으며, FAO/WHO 합동 식품첨가물전문가위원회(Expert Committee on Food Additives)와 국제식품규격위원회(Codex Alimentarius Commission)는 0.4 ㎍/㎏ 수준으로 설정하고 있다(Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 2010; Codex committee on contaminants in Foods, CCCF8, www. fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/). 한편 우리나라는 2008 년부터 식품의약품안전처 고시에 의거하여 곡류의 카드뮴 함량 기준을 Codex 및 주요 외국과 유사한 수준의 0.1㎍/㎏ (밀과 쌀은0.2 ㎍/㎏)으로 설정하고 있다(식품의약품안전처, 식품기 준 및 규격에 의한 고시. 제2016-101호). Kim(2008)은 토양오염 대책기준인 4.0 ㎍/㎏을 초과하여 우리나라에서 영농활동이 제 한된 농경지를 대상으로 벼 품종 별 백미 카드뮴 함량을 분석한
doi:10.9787/kjbs.2016.48.4.470 fatcat:r7ljpga7ebasvkvpnfbemhiime