Deterministic Time-Space Tradeoffs for k-SUM [article]

Andrea Lincoln, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Joshua R. Wang, R. Ryan Williams
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Given a set of numbers, the $k$-SUM problem asks for a subset of $k$ numbers that sums to zero. When the numbers are integers, the time and space complexity of $k$-SUM is generally studied in the word-RAM model; when the numbers are reals, the complexity is studied in the real-RAM model, and space is measured by the number of reals held in memory at any point. We present a time and space efficient deterministic self-reduction for the $k$-SUM problem which holds for both models, and has many
more » ... resting consequences. To illustrate: * $3$-SUM is in deterministic time $O(n^2 \lg\lg(n)/\lg(n))$ and space $O\left(\sqrt{\frac{n \lg(n)}{\lg\lg(n)}}\right)$. In general, any polylogarithmic-time improvement over quadratic time for $3$-SUM can be converted into an algorithm with an identical time improvement but low space complexity as well. * $3$-SUM is in deterministic time $O(n^2)$ and space $O(\sqrt n)$, derandomizing an algorithm of Wang. * A popular conjecture states that 3-SUM requires $n^{2-o(1)}$ time on the word-RAM. We show that the 3-SUM Conjecture is in fact equivalent to the (seemingly weaker) conjecture that every $O(n^{.51})$-space algorithm for $3$-SUM requires at least $n^{2-o(1)}$ time on the word-RAM. * For $k \ge 4$, $k$-SUM is in deterministic $O(n^{k - 2 + 2/k})$ time and $O(\sqrt{n})$ space.
arXiv:1605.07285v1 fatcat:lqax3ksdsjcvrpuhngobdtn2yy