Potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against the zoonotic pararubulavirus Sosuga virus
AbstractSosuga virus (SOSV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus with a single known human case of disease. There has been little laboratory research on SOSV pathogenesis or immunity, and no approved therapeutics or vaccines are available. Here, we report the discovery of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the circulating memory B cells of the only known human case and survivor of SOSV infection. We isolated six mAbs recognizing the functional attachment protein (HN) and 18 mAbs against
... he fusion (F) protein. The anti-HN mAbs all target the globular head of the HN protein and can be organized into 4 competition-binding groups that exhibit epitope diversity. The anti-F mAbs can be divided into pre- or post-fusion conformation-specific categories and further into 8 competition-binding groups. Generally, pre-fusion conformation-specific anti-F mAbs showed higher potency in neutralization assays than did mAbs only recognizing the post-fusion conformation of F protein. Most of the anti-HN mAbs were more potently neutralizing than the anti-F mAbs, with mAbs in one of the HN competition-binding groups possessing ultra-potent (<1 ng/mL) half maximal inhibitory (IC50) virus neutralization values. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis for human antibody recognition of paramyxovirus surface proteins and the mechanisms of SOSV neutralization.