Brain Tumor Type Classification via Capsule Networks
Brain tumor is considered as one of the deadliest and most common form of cancer both in children and in adults. Consequently, determining the correct type of brain tumor in early stages is of significant importance to devise a precise treatment plan and predict patient's response to the adopted treatment. In this regard, there has been a recent surge of interest in designing Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for the problem of brain tumor type classification. However, CNNs typically require
... large amount of training data and can not properly handle input transformations. Capsule networks (referred to as CapsNets) are brand new machine learning architectures proposed very recently to overcome these shortcomings of CNNs, and posed to revolutionize deep learning solutions. Of particular interest to this work is that Capsule networks are robust to rotation and affine transformation, and require far less training data, which is the case for processing medical image datasets including brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images. In this paper, we focus to achieve the following four objectives: (i) Adopt and incorporate CapsNets for the problem of brain tumor classification to design an improved architecture which maximizes the accuracy of the classification problem at hand; (ii) Investigate the over-fitting problem of CapsNets based on a real set of MRI images; (iii) Explore whether or not CapsNets are capable of providing better fit for the whole brain images or just the segmented tumor, and; (iv) Develop a visualization paradigm for the output of the CapsNet to better explain the learned features. Our results show that the proposed approach can successfully overcome CNNs for the brain tumor classification problem.