Prevalence and risk factors for micronutrient deficiencies in pregnant women at Cayenne maternity, French Guiana
Involved in physical and brain development, immune system functioning and various metabolic processes, micronutrients have profound health effects. The nutritional status of the pregnant woman is a major determinant of fetal health. French Guiana has the highest annual population growth rate. Social inequalities, cultural practices and parasitoses in French Guiana could affect the prevalence of these deficiencies. The main objective was to estimate the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency
... ient deficiency among pregnant women in French Guiana. The secondary objective was to identify socio-demographic, dietary, obstetric and neonatal risk factors associated with deficiencies. Methods Pregnant woman over 22 weeks of pregnancy hospitalized for delivery at the Obstetrical Emergency Department of the Hospital Center in Cayenne from May 2018 to March 2019. A socio-demographic and food questionnaire was administered. Medical data were collected from the medical records. Blood and urine samples were taken. The descriptive analysis used the Student and Chi2 tests. Prevalence ratios were obtained a Poisson regression. Results A total of 341 women were included. The majority were born in Haiti (39%) and French Guiana (34%). At least one micronutrient deficiency was documented in 81% of women. Women receiving State Medical Aid had a 35% greater risk of deficiency during pregnancy compared to those with both normal and complementary health insurance. (PR=1.35 95% CI (1.12;1.63) p-value=0. 002) Conclusions Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnant women in French Guiana are a real public health problem, a fact that was previously overlooked in a context of rising obesity. A varied and balanced diet remains the most effective solution to prevent these deficiencies. In French Guiana, a region where precariousness and obesity are widespread, nutritional care seems urgent.