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As new cyberattacks are launched against systems and networks on a daily basis, the ability for network intrusion detection systems to operate efficiently in the big data era has become critically important, particularly as more low-power Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices enter the market. This has motivated research in applying machine learning algorithms that can operate on streams of data, trained online or "live" on only a small amount of data kept in memory at a time, as opposed to the more<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/info11060315">doi:10.3390/info11060315</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ly5wmmmxpzbb7ltjp3mn65u6sq">fatcat:ly5wmmmxpzbb7ltjp3mn65u6sq</a> </span>
more »... classical approaches that are trained solely offline on all of the data at once. In this context, one important concept from machine learning for improving detection performance is the idea of "ensembles", where a collection of machine learning algorithms are combined to compensate for their individual limitations and produce an overall superior algorithm. Unfortunately, existing research lacks proper performance comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous online ensembles. Hence, this paper investigates several homogeneous and heterogeneous ensembles, proposes three novel online heterogeneous ensembles for intrusion detection, and compares their performance accuracy, run-time complexity, and response to concept drifts. Out of the proposed novel online ensembles, the heterogeneous ensemble consisting of an adaptive random forest of Hoeffding Trees combined with a Hoeffding Adaptive Tree performed the best, by dealing with concept drift in the most effective way. While this scheme is less accurate than a larger size adaptive random forest, it offered a marginally better run-time, which is beneficial for online training.
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