Suitability of terrestrial Lidar and digital photogrammetry for surveying and analysis of fold structures [book]

Bianca Wagner, Bernd Leiss, FID GEO
2021
Quantitative fold structure analyses at different scales are essential for deducing deformation mechanisms and the reconstruction of the deformation history of orogens. However, not only the field surveying of fold structures, especially in view of their quantification in three dimensions with the classical tools as measuring tape, grid mapping with measuring tapes, geological compass, field book and camera is a time consuming and laborious job, but also the construction of a georeferenced
more » ... georeferenced 3D-model of fold structures based on classical data. Another crucial aspect of the classical field surveying of folds is the limitation by poor outcrop conditions. Reasons might be restricted or no accessibility due to high outcrop walls, water or fences, limited visibility because of vegetation, difficult measurability due to very smooth walls or complexity as a result of irregular outcrop walls or distant outcrops. Furthermore, inappropriate oriented outcrop surfaces in respect to the fold geometry can make a survey even worse. Over the past years modern 3D surveying techniques like terrestrial Lidar and digital photogrammetry became progressively affordable for geological field work and now start to complement or replace traditional methods. We started to utilize these techniques on fold structure surveying and to apply quantitative fold structure analysis on different outcrop settings in Central Germany. Different workflows were developed and tested to optimize data conversion, handling and representation. We applied a laser scanner and a single lens reflex camera, complemented by a differential GPS device and laser tachymeter. Data conversion, correction and analysis were done by means of different free as well as commercial software packages. To test different outcrop situations, different quarries, salt mines and steep cliffs, exposing from single fold to complex folds in limestone, greywacke, cherts, rock salt or potassium salt, were selected. As a result, exact 3D point clouds of all exposed folds could be generated by [...]
doi:10.23689/fidgeo-3934 fatcat:b7izcbmi3zfazpeddbkkqx32re