Behaviour change approaches for individuals with diabetes to improve foot self-management: a scoping review
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Background Diabetes related foot complications are increasing in complexity, frequency and cost. The application of self-management strategies can reduce the risk of individuals developing foot complications. The type, range and nature of the literature focusing on interventions that support patients with diabetic foot self-management is unknown. This scoping review aimed to i) identify self-management actions and risky behaviour avoidance strategies within interventions, ii) map the
... functions through which these behaviour change interventions have an effect, iii) display gaps in the research. Methodology Arksey and Malley's (2003) 5 stage framework was followed to conduct the scoping study. This methodological framework was selected because it was developed specifically for scoping reviews and therefore offered clear methodological distinction from systematic review methodology. . Databases were searched from inception of the project until June 2020 supplemented by hand searching of reference lists. In total 988 papers were identified. These were independently screened by three reviewers, identifying 19 eligible papers. Data extraction and charting of data was independently conducted by three reviewers to identify study characteristics, self-management actions and risky behaviours. Data was charted against the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation, behaviour) model of behaviour to determine intervention function. Results In total 25 different foot self-management actions and risk behaviours were classified into three themes; routine self-management, trauma avoidance and warning signs and actions. Inspect feet daily received the most attention. The majority of interventions focused on knowledge and skills, but overlooked taking action and decision making. Intervention mapping identified four primary intervention functions (education, persuasion, training and enablement) used to address deficits in capability, opportunity and motivation that positively improved foot self-management behaviour. No studies targeted first ulcer prevention, and most either did not measure or improve foot health outcomes. Conclusion This review charted the evidence for interventions promoting diabetic foot self-management through a theoretical behaviour change perspective. A core set of behaviour change activities and intervention functions associated with positive changes in behaviour were identified. This information will provide researchers with a useful basis for developing self-management interventions.