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Accessing topological order in fractionalized liquids with gapped edges

2014
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Physical Review B
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We consider manifestations of topological order in time-reversal-symmetric fractional topological liquids (TRS-FTLs), defined on planar surfaces with holes. We derive a formula for the topological ground state degeneracy of such a TRS-FTL, which applies to cases where the edge modes on each boundary are fully gapped by appropriate backscattering terms. The degeneracy is exact in the limit of infinite system size, and is given by $q^{N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}}$, where $N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}$ is the

doi:10.1103/physrevb.90.205115
fatcat:q7ehlu5dsvcirg6h3q7hzwkpxy