Duplication Mechanics in Samoan and Their Functional Values

William Churchill
1908 American Journal of Philology  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. IO) In a very few instances this duplication is used to express the plural of the primitive. fiti, to fillip fitfit gdu, to break gdugau ii) An apparent anomaly is the case of itiiti "small" which seems to represent the singular, whereas the primitive is plural: 'o le mea itiiti, the little thing: 'o mea iti, little things. The probable explanation is that iti, the plural, is not indeed the primitive iti, but a form reduced by crasis from iiti, which would be such a normally formed plural preduplication as fufuti from futi or 'e'emo from 'emo (cf. 12). Then itiiti would rest as a sort of intensive or differentiating form (cf. 9). Upon my working hypothesis of root reducibility we may see in iti the seed i which contains the germ idea of smallness. This becomes still more clear when we find the same vocal seed with other consonantal coefficients in lili'i and nini'i, each of which signifies small, and each of which, as well as iti, has a wide extension into other languages of the Polynesian stock. We now pass to the phase of preduplication, taking up for consideration first the preduplication of the dissyllabic stem of the type BBC, for in the nature of things preduplication is an impossibility to the monosyllabic stem. 12) It forms a plural of verbs: 'ai, to eat 'a'ai 'au, to send 'a'au tapi, to wipe ataapi tusi, to write lutusi vele, to weed vevele 13) It forms an intensive of verbs, by extension of the idea of repeated to continuous action: 'ati, to bite 'a'ati, to eat in, to corrode 'olo, to coo 'o'olo, to speak indistinctly 'ona, bitter 'o'ona, sour lau, to speak lalau, to make a speech sae, to tear sasae, to rend IO) In a very few instances this duplication is used to express the plural of the primitive. fiti, to fillip fitfit gdu, to break gdugau ii) An apparent anomaly is the case of itiiti "small" which seems to represent the singular, whereas the primitive is plural: 'o le mea itiiti, the little thing: 'o mea iti, little things. The probable explanation is that iti, the plural, is not indeed the primitive iti, but a form reduced by crasis from iiti, which would be such a normally formed plural preduplication as fufuti from futi or 'e'emo from 'emo (cf. 12). Then itiiti would rest as a sort of intensive or differentiating form (cf. 9). Upon my working hypothesis of root reducibility we may see in iti the seed i which contains the germ idea of smallness. This becomes still more clear when we find the same vocal seed with other consonantal coefficients in lili'i and nini'i, each of which signifies small, and each of which, as well as iti, has a wide extension into other languages of the Polynesian stock. We now pass to the phase of preduplication, taking up for consideration first the preduplication of the dissyllabic stem of the type BBC, for in the nature of things preduplication is an impossibility to the monosyllabic stem. 12) It forms a plural of verbs: 'ai, to eat 'a'ai 'au, to send 'a'au tapi, to wipe ataapi tusi, to write lutusi vele, to weed vevele 13) It forms an intensive of verbs, by extension of the idea of repeated to continuous action: 'ati, to bite 'a'ati, to eat in, to corrode 'olo, to coo 'o'olo, to speak indistinctly 'ona, bitter 'o'ona, sour lau, to speak lalau, to make a speech sae, to tear sasae, to rend
doi:10.2307/288505 fatcat:gux6miydv5etrkge6c5g4fpoqy