Two Decades of 4D-QSAR: A Dying Art or Staging a Comeback?

Andrzej Bak
<span title="2021-05-14">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3loumxx7kzamnlu4h6x3xoz6ay" style="color: black;">International Journal of Molecular Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
A key question confronting computational chemists concerns the preferable ligand geometry that fits complementarily into the receptor pocket. Typically, the postulated 'bioactive' 3D ligand conformation is constructed as a 'sophisticated guess' (unnecessarily geometry-optimized) mirroring the pharmacophore hypothesis—sometimes based on an erroneous prerequisite. Hence, 4D-QSAR scheme and its 'dialects' have been practically implemented as higher level of model abstraction that allows the
more &raquo; ... tion of the multiple molecular conformation, orientation and protonation representation, respectively. Nearly a quarter of a century has passed since the eminent work of Hopfinger appeared on the stage; therefore the natural question occurs whether 4D-QSAR approach is still appealing to the scientific community? With no intention to be comprehensive, a review of the current state of art in the field of receptor-independent (RI) and receptor-dependent (RD) 4D-QSAR methodology is provided with a brief examination of the 'mainstream' algorithms. In fact, a myriad of 4D-QSAR methods have been implemented and applied practically for a diverse range of molecules. It seems that, 4D-QSAR approach has been experiencing a promising renaissance of interests that might be fuelled by the rising power of the graphics processing unit (GPU) clusters applied to full-atom MD-based simulations of the protein-ligand complexes.
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